Reducing High Blood Pressure With Vitamins – Four Nutrients That Will Save Your Life

In addition to prescribed medications, it is extremely beneficial to incorporate home remedies to lower your blood pressure. Hypertension is significantly dangerous and potentially life threatening. Consequently, anyone suffering from the disease would be encouraged to research information about reducing high blood pressure with vitamins. Medical research and studies conducted by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) indicates that certain vitamins are guaranteed to lower your blood pressure.

Eating right comes easy by choosing a good diet which is essential for people with Hypertension. The dietary guidelines recommended by the U.S. Departments of Agriculture and of the Health and Human Services combat the factors that are associated with high blood pressure. The goal is to minimize the unhealthy lifestyle habits that are harmful to your health and may shorten your life. Here is a productive list of USDA approved vitamin supplements that are effective against high blood pressure.

Potassium: This is a vitamin that is proven to help prevent and control high blood pressure. Be sure to eat foods that pertain plenty of Potassium. Foods that are a good source for potassium are fruits, vegetables, dairy foods and fish. Specific foods are apricots, bananas, beets, oranges, prunes, milk- fat free or skim, baked potato (flesh &skin), cooked spinach, fish and winter squash.

Calcium: This vitamin/minerals supplement is a powerful blood pressure lowering element. It is an important nutrient for overall good health. It is recommended that you take one gram of elemental calcium daily. Foods that are a good source of calcium are dairy products such as milk, yogurt and cheese. To maintain a healthy body weight, however, be sure to consume skim or lowfat varieties. Foods that are high in calcium include raw broccoli, salmon, cooked turnip greens and tofu.

Magnesium: Magnesium deficiency could be potentially dangerous for those suffering from Hypertension. As a matter-of-fact, the vitamin level is extremely low in the Hypertension patients. Therefore, it is recommended that you eat plenty of foods that contain this nutrient. It is possible to take a daily supplement of 400mg daily. Recommended food source for magnesium is beans, okra, broccoli, spinach, croaker and nuts/seeds.

Vitamin C: This nutritional supplement is important for controlling elevated blood pressure. If the serum level of Vitamin C is low, the blood pressure rises. It is not yet determined, however, if this is a result of dietary habits or a direct effect of the Hypertension.

The key to reducing high blood pressure with vitamins is to eat a variety of foods that actually supply the nutrients, fiber and vitamins that is indeed required to reduce elevated pressure. Fundamentally, you should apply a basic vitamin or mineral formula to your diet and supplement it with nutritional supplements daily.

How I Became An Expert on Experts

Why General Business Management Studies are Important to You.

If you have a dream ever to lead a company or start one; you need to ensure you have full knowledge of marketing through business management studies click here for more information. Studies in business management is one of the best things to do, and out why here. One of the benefits of studying general business management is that if you do not you may be overtaken by the changing technology. You need to have knowledge of technology and processes. If you are to remain relevant in the changing world, you have to keep updating yourself with the dynamic technology.

The other reason why you need to study is that your understanding is currently limited to the current role. You may for some time now been increasing our knowledge little by little as you work. May be you have reached a level you feel that you are not growing, Leaning dues not only stop at the information. It is also a way of making sure you improve your interrelationships been your or peers].

The The best thing is that education is a process that presents you with the ability to network with others and also helps you to gain mentorship benefits from the lecturers. If you do not take learning challenges, your understanding will remain limited to practical experience. It is true that there is nothing that can beat the power of knowledge, but knowing how a business is operated in equally important. You should, therefore, ensure you have enough knowledge about business management. You may also notice that learning helps you expand business skills. There is a lot that you learn about business and management when you take the business management skills.

There is a lot to learn about management when you take business management studies. Poor management can make a business crumble while proper management makes a market. Now that every manager and every business owner want to see their businesses grow, it will be essential to study business management if you’re going to look at your business thrive. You need to build your business by working together as a team, and that is one of the things you will learn.

You will also gain from the increased reliability. Those who are holders of MBA business administration are highly appreciated. That is because they understand a lot about businesses and they can help build your business. Every desires to see the company grow and knowing what you can do to help improve your business is a great achievement. It is better to see your business grow tat to see it crumble. Through through the business studies management is one way of witnessing your business thrive. If you get an opportunity to increase your knowledge do so as it results in growing your business.

Four Interesting Facts About Frozen Food That You May Want to Know

In today’s world, only a very small percentage of people grow their own food. Indeed, in some parts of the world, less than 5% of all people are involved in agriculture. And even for those who are involved in agriculture, it is highly unlikely that they would be in a position to grow all the foods they need. In most cases then, people end up consuming foods produced very far away from where they are. And to ensure that the food doesn’t end up being spoilt on the way, between where it is produced and where it is consumed, it becomes necessary to preserve it, through among other methods, freezing – so that we end up with frozen food.

Here, then, are five interesting facts about frozen foods that you may want to know.

1. That frozen food is not a new concept. Many of us imagine that freezing of food became a possibility with the invention of the refrigerator. Nothing could be further from the truth, because for thousands of years before the invention of the machine we know as the refrigerator, people had been consuming food that was frozen. It was one of the ways through which people in the parts of the world beset with long winters could store the food they needed to take them through the season. Of course, refrigeration (as we know it today) is a fairly young concept; originating from the 1930s – making it less than a century old.

2. That frozen food is typically poorer in some nutrients than unfrozen food. It has been observed that a considerable portion of certain nutrients, especially vitamin C and carotene get damaged during the freezing process, so that frozen food is poorer in these nutrients than food that is not frozen. Vitamin B1 and B2 are other nutrients that may also get lost during the freezing process.

3. You may want to know that frozen food is healthier than food that is preserved through the use many other methods (for instance preservatives), the loss of some nutrients that takes place during freezing notwithstanding. The idea behind using preservatives is to keep food from being invaded by micro-organisms. But freezing achieves the same objective, so that frozen food doesn’t have to be laden with preservatives. In the final analysis, the likely harm from use of some preservatives is much worse than the loss of nutritional value that freezing causes; for this loss of nutritional value is something that can be made up for.

4. That frozen food, contrary to what many of us imagine, doesn’t have to be tasteless. Sure, freezing food can cause some loss of delicacy. But if you make use of a stabilizer when putting the food into the freezer, you can conserve the taste of that food, so that it tastes ‘natural’ when it is finally taken out of the freezer for consumption.

The Best Investment Portfolio for 2014 and Beyond

If you have an investment portfolio (like in a 401k plan) take a good look at it, because it might not really be the best investment portfolio for 2014 and beyond. If you are a new investor, don’t start investing money until you are familiar with the best funds to include in your portfolio in 2014.

Your investment portfolio is simply a list showing where your money is, and for most average investors consists primarily of mutual funds: stock funds, bond funds and money market funds. Here we discuss the best funds and asset allocation to achieve the best investment portfolio in the event that 2014 and beyond becomes a tough environment for investors. You may need to make changes in your existing portfolio; and you should also be aware of the following as a new investor before you start investing money.

As an investor you should receive statements periodically which show you where your money is. The problem is that many investors do not give these statements, which clearly show you your asset allocation and your investment portfolio, the attention they deserve. That can be a problem. For example, if you had 50% of your portfolio allocated to stock funds in early 2009, you could have two-thirds of your money in these funds now. If the stock market takes a big hit, you stand to take a big loss. Let’s take a look at stock funds and the best funds for investing money there first.

The stock market and many diversified stock funds have gone UP in value about 150% in less than 5 years, and numerous financial analysts expect a correction (stock prices to go DOWN) in 2014. If your investment portfolio shows that more than half of your assets are invested in stock funds consider cutting back to 50% or less. If you are a new investor ready to start investing, allocate no more than 50% to diversified stock funds. The best funds: those that invest in high quality, dividend paying stocks vs. growth funds that pay little in the form of dividends. This is your first step in putting together the best investment portfolio for 2014, because it cuts your potential losses.

The best investment portfolio also includes bond funds, which have been good solid investments for over 30 years. Why? Interest rates have been falling, which sends bond prices and bond fund values higher. Problem: interest rates have hit all-time lows and appear to be heading higher. Higher interest rates create losses for bond fund investors. Many investors have an investment portfolio loaded with bond funds and are totally unaware of the risk involved if rates go up. If you are getting ready to start investing money you need to know this as well. When interest rates go UP, bonds and bond fund values go DOWN. That’s about the only iron-clad rule in the investment world.

Allocate no more than 25% to 30% of your total investment portfolio to bond funds to cut your risk. The best bond funds are categorized as intermediate-term funds, where the investment portfolio of the fund invests in bonds that mature (on average) in 5 to 10 years. These are the best funds now because they pay a respectable dividend with only moderate risk. The worst funds to hold now: long-term funds that hold bonds maturing (on average) in 15, 20 years or more. When you review your investment portfolio, get rid of these because they will be big losers if (when) interest rates shoot upward. New investors who want to start investing money: avoid them and allocate about 25% of your money to intermediate-term bond funds to avoid heavy risk.

Sometimes the best investment portfolio is loaded with aggressive stock funds and includes longer-term bond funds. Now, looking at 2014 and beyond, is probably not one of those times. For many years now losses in stock funds have been offset by gains in bond funds. Today the problem for investors is that even the best funds of both varieties could get hit if the economy falters and interest rates rise significantly. That makes investing money today a real challenge… one that few investors are prepared for.

So, let’s say that you start investing money with less than 50% going to the best funds in the stock department and about 25% allocated to the best funds in the bond universe… or you adjust your existing investment portfolio to these levels… where do you invest the rest of it? Even though interest rates are still historically low, you bite the bullet and invest it for safety to earn interest. In a 401k plan your best safe investment is likely the stable account, if your plan has one. Otherwise, the best fund for safety is a money market fund (even though they presently pay almost no interest). When rates go up, they should pay more. Or you can shop the banks for the best rates on short-term CDs, or savings accounts.

I expect that 2014 and beyond will be a challenging time to start investing money or to manage an existing investment portfolio. On the other hand, now you should have a handle on the best funds to consider when putting together the best investment portfolio possible. Remember, you must stay in the game in order to get ahead over the long term; but sometimes moderation is your best course of action.

Manufacturers of Tracked and Wheeled Agricultural Tractors

Farming would never be easy if the agricultural and farm tractors today stayed in the drawing boards. Transferring heavy sacks of fertilizers, grains, and other farming equipment made the workload light for farmers when the tracked and wheeled agricultural tractors were introduced. These tractors were also designed to have a variety of attachments for sowing, plowing, and planting. Agricultural tractor dimensions vary in order to be able to carry these additional farming technologies.

Manufacturers of agricultural tractors have considered the importance of different farming attachments that they developed a wide range of tractor choices. The New Holland Agriculture of Pennsylvania, the AGCO Corporation of New York, and John Deere and Company of Illinois continue to design and manufacture a series of models with different agricultural tractor dimensions.

New Holland has developed six models for the T9 Series 4WD – TIER4A Tractors. Each articulated tractor runs on engines of up to 507 horsepower. The agricultural tractor dimensions vary from one tractor to another. With 20.8 R 42 tires, tractors in the series have a maximum height range of 144.2 inches (3663 millimeters) to 148.5 inches (3772 mm.). The smallest tractor in the series has an overall length of 295 inches (7493 millimeters), while the largest stretches to 300 inches (7615 mm.). The smallest of the six models has an outside frame width of 36.5 inches (929 mm.), while the largest has 44 inches (1116 mm.). The wheelbase for the smallest is 148 inches (3759 mm.) and 154 inches (3911 millimeters) for the largest. The maximum operating weight for the series ranges from 42,000 pounds (19051 kilograms) to 56,000 lbs. (24,494 kg.).

The Pennsylvania manufacturer also has the TK4000 Series Crawler Tractors. The agricultural tractor dimensions for this series also varies. The TK4030V, the most slim of the four models, has a width of 46.1 inches. TK4050 has a 55.5-inch width, while the low height TK4050M has an overall width of 68.9 inches. The TK4030V delivers 64 PTO horsepower while the other two models deliver 83 PTO horsepower. The maximum length for the models in the series ranges from 130 inches (3352 millimeters) to 135 inches (3431 mm.). The range of the height from the wheel to the top of the seat is 50.3 inches (1278 mm.) to 56.3 inches (1431 mm.). The maximum height to the top of the rollbar is from 87.0 inches (2210 millimeters) to 91.5 inches (2326 mm.).

Likewise, the AGCO has manufactured agricultural tractors under the core brands of Challenger, Fendt, Massey Ferguson and Valtra. The most interesting among the more than 100 models can be found in the Challenger MT800C Special Application series. All four tracked models in the series were designed with ultra-hard wearing polyurethane mid-wheels and full-length debris deflector. The agricultural tractor dimensions in the series are not too high for the 430 to 570 rated horsepower of the engines.

Finally, John Deere also offers tracked and wheeled tractors in its 2011 8R/8RT Models. The 8335RT Tractor is the largest of the 10 models. It has a wheelbase of 99 inches (2515 millimeters). It runs on a 335 horsepower engine. The agricultural tractor dimensions in terms of width and height are stable. The overall width from axle end to end is 134.6 inches (3420 mm.), but the width expands to 174.6 inches (4435 millimeters) with the wide axle kit installed. The command view height is 131.3 inches (3334 millimeters). The length is dependent on the attachment. With the hitch, drawbar, and front weight support (excluding front suitcase weights) the length ranges from 253.1 inches (6428.4 mm.) to 256.5 inches (6514.2 millimeters). With the hitch, drawbar, front weight support, and front suitcase weights, the length ranges from 267.5 inches (6795.4 millimeters) to 270.9 inches (6881.2 millimeters).

Ease Into the World of Investing

The United Nations does it. Governments do it. Companies do it. Fund managers do it. Millions of ordinary working people – from business owners to factory workers – do it. Housewives do it. Even farmers and children do it.

‘It’ here is investing: the science and art of creating, protecting and enhancing your wealth in the financial markets. This article introduces some of the most important concerns in the world of investment.

Let’s start with your objectives. While clearly the goal is to make more money, there are 3 specific reasons institutions, professionals and retail investors (people like you and me) invest:

  • For Security, ie for protection against inflation or market crashes
  • For Income, ie to receive regular income from their investments
  • For Growth, ie for long-term growth in the value of their investments

Investments are generally structured to focus on one or other of these objectives, and investment professionals (such as fund managers) spend a lot of time balancing these competing objectives. With a little bit of education and time, you can do almost the same thing yourself.

One of the first questions to ask yourself is how much risk you’re comfortable with. To put it more plainly: how much money are you prepared to lose? Your risk tolerance level depends on your personality, experiences, number of dependents, age, level of financial knowledge and several other factors. Investment advisors measure your risk tolerance level so they can classify you by risk profile (eg, ‘Conservative’, ‘Moderate’, ‘Aggressive’) and recommend the appropriate investment portfolio (explained below).

However, understanding your personal risk tolerance level is necessary for you too, especially with something as important as your own money. Your investments should be a source of comfort, not pain. Nobody can guarantee you’ll make a profit; even the most sensible investment decisions can turn against you; there are always ‘good years’ and ‘bad years’. You may lose part or all of your investment so always invest only what you are prepared to lose.

At some point you’ll want to withdraw some or all of your investment funds. When is that point likely to be: in 1 year, 5 years, 10 years or 25 years? Clearly, you’ll want an investment that allows you to withdraw at least part of your funds at this point. Your investment timeframe – short-term, medium-term or long-term – will often determine what kinds of investments you can go for and what kinds of returns to expect.

All investments involve a degree of risk. One of the ‘golden rules’ of investing is that reward is related to risk: the higher the reward you want, the higher the risk you have to take. Different investments can come with very different levels of risk (and associated reward); it’s important that you appreciate the risks associated with any investment you’re planning to make. There’s no such thing as a risk-free investment, and your bank deposits are no exception. Firstly, while Singapore bank deposits are rightly considered very safe, banks in other countries have failed before and continue to fail. More importantly, in 2010 the highest interest rate on Singapore dollar deposits up to $10,000 was 0.375%, while the average inflation rate from Jan-Nov 2010 was 2.66%. You were losing money just by leaving your savings in the bank.

Today, there are many, many types of investments (‘asset classes’) available. Some – such as bank deposits, stocks (shares) and unit trusts – you’re already familiar with, but there are several others you should be aware of. Some of the most common ones:

  • Bank Deposits
  • Shares
  • Investment-Linked Product1
  • Unit Trusts2
  • ETFs3
  • Gold4

1 An Investment-Linked Product (ILP) is an insurance plan that combines protection and investment. ILPs main advantage is that they offer life insurance.

2 A Unit Trust is a pool of money professionally managed according to a specific, long-term management objective (eg, a unit trust may invest in well-known companies all over the world to try to provide a balance of high returns and diversification). The main advantage of unit trusts is that you don’t have to pay brokers’ commissions.

3 An ETF or Exchange-Traded Fund comes in many different forms: for example, there are equity ETFs that hold, or track the performance of, a basket of stocks (eg Singapore, emerging economies); commodity ETFs that hold, or track the price of, a single commodity or basket of commodities (eg Silver, metals); and currency ETFs that track a major currency or basket of currencies (eg Euro). ETFs offer two main advantages: they trade like shares (on stock exchanges such as the SGX) and typically come with very low management fees.

The main difference between ETFs and Unit Trusts is that ETFs are publicly-traded assets while Unit Trusts are privately-traded assets, meaning that you can buy and sell them yourself anytime during market hours.

4 ‘Gold’ here refers to gold bullion, certificates of ownership or gold savings accounts. However, note that you can invest in gold in many other ways, including gold ETFs, gold Unit Trusts; and shares in gold mining companies.

With the advent of the Internet and online brokers, there are so many investment alternatives available today that even a beginner investor with $5,000 to invest can find several investment options suited to her objectives, risk profile and timeframe.

Diversification basically means trying to reduce risk by making a variety of investments, ie investing your money in multiple companies, industries and countries (and as your financial knowledge and wealth grows, in different ‘asset classes’ – cash, stocks, ETFs, commodities such as gold and silver, etc). This collection of investments is termed your Investment Portfolio.

Some level of diversification is important because in times of crisis, similar investments tend to behave similarly. Two of the best examples in recent history are the Singapore stock market crashes of late-2008/early-2009, during the US ‘Subprime’ crisis, and 1997, during the ‘Asian Financial Crisis’, when the price of large numbers of stocks plunged. ‘Diversifying’ by investing in different stocks wouldn’t have helped you very much on these occasions.

The concept and power of compounding are best explained by example. Assume we have 3 investments: the first returns 0.25% a year; the second returns 5% a year; and the third returns 10% a year. For each investment, we compare 2 scenarios:

  • Without compounding, ie the annual interest is taken out of the account.
  • With compounding, ie the annual interest is left (re-invested) in the account.

Let’s look at the returns over 25 years for all 3 investments, assuming we start off with $10,000 in Year 0:

  • With 0.25% return a year, your investment will grow to $10,625 after 25 years without compounding; your investment becomes $10,644 after 25 years with compounding.
  • With 5% return a year, your investment will grow to $22,500 after 25 years without compounding; your investment becomes $33,864 after 25 years with compounding.
  • With 10% return a year, your investment will grow to $35,000 after 25 years without compounding; your investment becomes $108,347 after 25 years with compounding.

This shows the dramatic effects of both higher returns and compounding: 10% annual returns coupled with 25 years of compounding will return you more than 10 times your initial investment. And 10% returns are by no means unrealistic: educated investors who actively manage their portfolio themselves and practise diversification can achieve even higher returns, even with some losing years.

People of all ages and backgrounds need practical and customised guidance in developing their financial knowledge and skills in order to reach their financial goals. In this article we’ve tried to describe in simple terms some of the most important concepts and principles you need to understand on this journey.

Ten Ways to Eliminate Mosquitoes and Four Worthless Measures – The Best Mosquito Control Methods

If you’ve ever wondered which mosquito control methods work and which ones will simply drain your pocketbook, read on for a comprehensive summary of the good, the bad and the dangerous.

1.) Get an industrial grade fan for your patio or deck. Mosquitoes have weak, fragile wings. They are easily swept away by changing currents.

2.) Remove any standing water from the property. Plastic pools, bird baths, buckets, ditches and puddles are all excellent places for mosquitoes to breed. You’ll also want to clear clogged gutters and pipes.

3.) Look into cedar oil. The U.S. Department of Agriculture recognizes cedar oil as the number one biological insect control agent, proven superior to chemical counterparts. Various spray and fogging techniques are used to control a wide variety of insect infestations on commercial farms and neighborhood lots.

4.) Drink frozen or heavily iced beverages to lower your body temperature and diminish sweating. The carbon monoxide you expel while breathing increases with heat and exercise, guiding mosquitoes to your vicinity. Your personal heat and body odor contribute to the cycle, making you more attractive than other candidates in the yard.

5.) Deodorize your feet. If you favor sandals and flip flops over socks and tennis shoes, beware that exposed feet give off a powerful odor which attracts mosquitoes. Try a good unscented powder to control foot moisture.

6.) Look into lemon eucalyptus oil. The U.S. Center for Disease Control issued a statement in 2008 recommending lemon eucalyptus equally to deet for mosquito control. The primary disadvantage with lemon eucalyptus is that it’s normally sold in small bottles as a personal insect repellent. Cedar oil solutions are available in gallon-sized containers and wholesale concentrates, making them much more cost effective for treatment with fogging machines and wide area sprayers.

7.) Cover up! It may sound obvious, but the most horrifying mosquito episodes occur when outdoor enthusiasts fail to dress appropriately. Take advantage of the standard drop in temperature after dusk. Opt for long sleeves and full length pants, especially if you have mosquito allergies or sensitive skin. Keep an extra pair of slacks in the car or backpack for summertime emergencies.

8.) Go light on the beer. Mosquitoes are attracted to the alcohol essence that is released through your pores.

9.) Forget the perfume. Certain members of the insect community will appreciate your scent even more than the humans you want to impress. Mosquitoes love perfume, especially floral or fruity fragrances.

10.) Invest in a mosquito tent for outdoor gatherings. Your guests will thank you for creating a party atmosphere conducive to fun and relaxation.

Now for some worthless measures…

According to the American Mosquito Control Association, the following mosquito control tactics simply don’t work as well as consumers perceive:

1.) Bugs Zappers. Two independent studies found no significant difference in the number of mosquitoes found in yards with or without bug zappers. Such devices catch huge numbers of non pest insects and relatively few mosquitoes.

2.) Citronella Candles: Citronella candles may produce a mild repellent effect, but they don’t offer a significant increase in protection.

3.) Electronic Devices: At least 10 studies have found ultrasonic devices to be totally useless.

4.) Backyard Misting Systems: Misters needlessly inject pesticides into the environment, affecting mosquitoes and beneficial insects alike.

The Dangers of Conventional Pesticides

Before you consider using a chemical delivery system, take a moment to research the active ingredient online. You may not like what you find. Traditional DEET products are notorious for causing rashes, headaches, nausea and disorientation. Even pyrethrum based insecticides derived from chrysanthemums are not as safe as once believed. According to an E.P.A. survey of poison control centers, pyrethrum based pesticides cause more insecticide poisoning incidents than any other pesticides except for organophosphates.

Due to widespread controversy over traditional insect control methods, cedar oil insect formulations have gained increasing popularity and respect in the pest control industry. In 2006, at the request of the U.S. Army, a team of world renowned organic scientists expanded upon traditional cedar oil formulations by introducing a quartz rock carrier to deliver a lethal dose of substance at the microscopic level. This nano-sized delivery system closes the breathing pores of pheromone driven insects on contact and creates a lasting a barrier that discourages new insects from entering sprayed territory.

SEIS the Tax-Free Investment Opportunity for UK Investors

Enterprise Investment Schemes

An EIS is an investment vehicle that provides funds and capital to small businesses that, due to the tightening of the credit market, cannot otherwise get financing from traditional sources. An EIS is an unquoted company that is not on a stock exchange and is most likely managed by a venture capital firm. These firms manage the investment objectives to protect investors and maximize investment returns. A good firm will have been involved in venture capital investing for a number of years and be able to provide a solid track record of protecting principle and securing returns. Firms operate their EISes differently, some offering investments into single companies while others operate EIS funds in which you could invest into a fund of multiple companies, therefore diversifying your risk.

The benefit of tax protection that EISes offer has resulted in an increased demand among wealthier investors, with EIS being utilized as a strategic tool within their portfolios. The UK government increased tax relief from 20% to 30% and the annual investment amount has been increased from £500,000 to £1,000,000. With the added benefit that the investment is exempt from capital gains tax and inheritance tax, EIS is increasingly the perfect vehicle for certain investors. More and more EISes have become essential within many investment portfolios as an integral tax relief tactic.

Seed Enterprise Investment Schemes

Not quite as large as the EIS, the SEIS provides a similar benefit and experience. The main difference being the investment amount allowed annually which currently stands at a maximum of £100,000, but offers an unprecedented 50% tax relief on the investment’s gains and value. However this 50% is only applicable if the SEIS continues to comply with the SEIS rules and providing the investment is left for a minimum of three years. After three years the investor can sell their stake, incurring no capital gains tax against profit realized. Furthermore, loss relief applies to any losses incurred.

As of 2014, the upfront tax relief for the highest tax bracket investors equates to a 64% tax break and, when combined with a loss relief tax break of a further potential of 22.5%, equates to a total of 86.5% tax relief. The downside tax protection of almost 90% is unprecedented amongst all other investment vehicles and provides significant tactical value to certain investors.

Careful Consideration

As with any investment decision, you need to be careful in your consideration when choosing to use EIS or SEIS for your portfolio. You should be considering these tax relief options in your portfolio after you have exhausted other forms of tax mitigation. The first two that should be utilized are your pension and annual Individual Savings Account (ISA) allowance. These primary tax savings vehicles provide secure investment vehicles; ISAs offer amazing investment flexibility not available through EIS or SEIS. Another option includes VCTs – Venture Capital Trusts – which have similar strategic benefits to EIS or SEIS but are limited to £200,000 per year.

In deciding on further tax mitigation, you need to consider the portion of your portfolio that these tactical investments would make up. Conventional wisdom dictates that you should not put more than 20% of your holdings into risky opportunities, but that 20% could realistically be surpassed with correct use of the right investment vehicles. If you are hedging your portfolio against a known event that will increase your capital gains taxes or inheritance taxes, EIS and SEIS would be a viable way to mitigate those taxes in a given year. In this way you could max out your contributions to these two tactical strategies in order to mitigate the known tax implications from another portion of your investment portfolio. It is these considerations that you should be aware of before deciding on a specific EIS or SEIS company.

Another concern that you should be aware of is the fact that EISes and SEISes are essentially “locked-in” products. You need to be able to leave the investments locked in for a period of at least three years (and in some cases longer) in order to access the tax relief benefits – managers will generally look for an exit in or around year 4, but an exit could realistically take longer and is subject to market conditions. In this way, many EIS and SEIS companies are illiquid and the secondary market for selling EIS/SEIS shares is therefore small. Taking the long view on these investments should be a natural consideration.

Choosing the Right EIS/SEIS

When deciding on the right company to invest for the purpose of tax mitigation, not all EIS/SEIS companies are the same. Choosing a company should not be done on impulse and requires effective due diligence to ensure that their investment philosophy is in line with your own. At the time of consideration, ask all the same questions of the company as you would when investing in any stock. By ensuring the company has a solid and proven track record of investments, open reporting functions that promote transparency and an investment philosophy you agree with, you can feel comfortable with your investment.

By considering an EIS/SEIS investment you are considering an investment option that has a real potential for investment loss. It can be the right option for those looking for a high risk option with an effective tax mitigation strategy as a small portion of their overall portfolio. EIS and SEIS investments can also be an excellent way for investors to dabble in venture capital investing without having to put up too much capital.

For more information please visit: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/the-enterprise-investment-scheme-introduction

https://www.gov.uk/seed-enterprise-investment-scheme-background

The Importance of Agriculture in a Technologically Advanced Society

Every place has its own prime agricultural products such as cereals, fruits, vegetables and industrial crops. The sustainability of these products can be achieved through the technologically advanced interventions such as irrigation facilities, farm mechanization, planting of crop hybrid varieties, post harvest facilities, integrated pest management, biological control of pest and diseases, organic farming through the use of trichoderma compost activator and vermiculture in the production of organic fertilizers; and the construction of farm to market roads for the accessibility of farm products to the market outlets.

The construction of irrigation facilities can increase the area of irrigated ricelands; thereby, increasing the rice production and generate more profits to the rice farmers. Furthermore, this will generate more jobs to the farmers in the localities. In upland areas where the crop production are vegetables, ornamentals and fruit trees, the type of irrigation that can be used are open source pump irrigation, sprinkler or drip pressurized.

Farm mechanization can be achieved through the procurement of four-wheel farm tractors for the land preparation in upland areas; and hand tractors or mudboat power tillers in the lowland rice areas. Post harvest facilities are the rice treshers, rice harvesters, rice mills, flat-bed dryers and drying pavements for rice; and corn shellers/ corn mills for corn products.

The use of hybrid varieties of crops can increase the production even in the same area; and generate more employment, since more harvest needs more workers especially during harvesting and post harvest activities. More harvest means more income to the farming households.

A technologically advanced agriculture is needed by a technologically advanced society for its sustainability.